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Annotated Bibliography: Interchurch Marriage

prepared by
Gail S. Risch
And provided compliments of

Dr. Michael Lawler, Director,
Center for Marriage and Family, Creighton University

(September 1997)

Note: The focus of this bibliography is literature from 1980 to the present; significant earlier works are included.

"American Catholic Parishes in Profile." Origins, 14 (1985) 670-76. Report from the Notre Dame Study of Catholic Parish Life. States that Catholics are far more likely to live within mixed marriages than are Protestants. Suggests that the post-Vatican II appreciation for other Christian bodies and American cultural values contribute to the greater incidence of mixed marriages.

Bahr, Howard M. "Religious Intermarriage and Divorce in Utah and the Mountain States." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 20 (1981) 251-61. Assesses differentials in the probability of divorce by type of interfaith marriage. Finds that same-faith marriages are more stable than interfaith marriages; that Catholic and Mormon same-faith marriages are slightly more stable than Protestant same-faith marriages; and that interfaith marriages involving Mormons are consistently less stable than are CatholicProtestant interfaith marriages.

Bard, Mary. Whom God Hath Joined. Essex, England: McCrimmon, 1987. Findings of a survey conducted among members of the Association of Interchurch Families in England, Scotland, and Wales. Examines the extent to which interchurch couples feel they belong to two churches. Finds that interchurch couples are deeply committed to their own as well as to their partner's church, often taking as full a role in worship and social activities as the particular church will allow. States that the major area of difficulty for interchurch couples is the sharing of communion, the spiritual need to take communion as a family. Reports that most Roman Catholics feel at home in the church of their partner, and that other Christian churches tend to be more open and welcoming than Roman Catholic churches. Finds that interchurch couples appreciate church social activities and clergy who exhibit a hospitable personality. Suggests that the high commitment of interchurch couples is a pastoral opportunity rather than a pastoral problem. Concludes that interchurch couples are pioneers, out in front where their churches are beginning to follow, and that they are united where it matters, in Christ.

Barkley, Elizabeth Bookser. "Interchurch Marriages: How to Help Them Succeed". Catholic Update. Ed. Jack Wintz, O.F.M. Cincinnati: St. Anthony Messenger Press, 1990. Suggests that interchurch couples can play a vital role in working toward full unity of those whose common bond is Jesus Christ. Offers pointers for success to those involved in interchurch marriages. Concludes that interchurch couples model the Church of tomorrow and lay the foundation for the reconciliation of Churches.

Barna, George. The Index of Leading Spiritual Indicator.-.. Dallas: Word, 1996. Provides an overview of the trends of spirituality in the United States based upon data taken from several nationwide surveys. Does not discuss interchurch marriage, but presents an interpretation of the religious landscape in which such marriages currently exist. Finds fundamental changes of seismic proportions in traditional practices and applied theology, and suggests that these changes are brought about by the current societal emphasis on tolerance, individual autonomy, and a growing non-Christian population. States that Americans are questioning everything about religion and faith, and that long-term taboos have been discarded in favor of wholesale re-evaluation; that America is transitioning from a Christian nation to a syncretistic, spiritually diverse society; and that past defenses against ecumenism are giving way to cooperation, understanding, and consensus. Concludes that traditional measures of religious activity and belief are declining and no longer relevant in light of the fact that the new perception of religion is a personalized, customized form of faith which meets personal needs, minimizes rules and absolutes, and thirsts for experience rather than knowledge.

Beaupere, Rene. "'Double Belonging': Some Reflections." One in Christ 18 (1982) 31-43. Discusses the notion of "double belonging" in a way that attempts to integrate theory (theological reflection) and practice (couples' experience). Suggests that if a mixed marriage is a communicatio in sacris, a sharing of spiritual benefits, it may be argued that interchurch families should be able to practice reciprocal eucharistic hospitality. Discusses the possibility that Christian upbringing can be ecumenical, and suggests that baptism, eucharist, and confirmation need not determine confessional choice: ecumenical celebrations of baptism presuppose an active commitment from the two communities involved; the conception of the eucharist, the sacrament of unity, progressively appears as the common good of the whole Church, transcending all Christian communities, instead of a means of distinguishing between particular churches; confirmation points back to baptism. Suggests that pastoral care of mixed marriages be concerned for the couple in its unity. Describes double belonging as a minor anomaly that arises on account of a prior and greater anomaly, that of ecclesiastical disunity. Concludes that the life of the churches is an unfolding, a movement, a development, and that koinonia does not rest upon doctrinal agreements but on a common participation in the life of Jesus Christ.

Bernard, Jessie. "New Occasions, New Duties." Journal of Ecumenical Studies 22 (1985) 97102. A response to several religious traditions' understanding of marriage. Suggests that the most relevant contemporary issues concerning marriage involve the role of women. See related articles by Callahan, Carmody, Chittick, Constantelos, and Yates.

Bildstein, Walter. The Joint Working Group-Instrument of Dissent and Metanoia: A Discussion of the Issue of Mixed Marriage." Journal of Ecumenical Studies 23 (1986) 107-112. Comments on the dialogue between the Roman Catholic Church and the Joint Working Group of the World Council of Churches regarding mixed marriages.

Booth, Alan, David R. Johnson, Ann Branaman, and Alan Sica. "Belief and Behavior: Does Religion Matter in Today's Marriage?". Journal of Marriage and the Family 57 (1995) 661-671. Assesses the extent to which changes in religious involvement influence marital quality and the extent to which changes in marital quality affect religiosity. Finds little support for the idea that an increase in religious activity leads to improved marital relations. Reports that increases in religiosity slightly decrease the probability of thinking about divorce, but do not enhance marital happiness or interaction nor decease the conflicts and problems thought to cause divorce. On the other hand, finds that an increase in marital happiness slightly increases church service attendance and religion's influence on daily life. Concludes that the link between religion and marital quality is both reciprocal and weak.

Booth, Alan, David R. Johnson, Lynn K. White, and John Edwards. "Divorce and Marital Instability over the Life Course." Journal of Marriage and the Family 7 (1986) 421-42. Studies why divorce and marital instability vary by age and duration of marriage. Religiosity was not found to be linked to life course and divorce, nor to have a relationship with other variables considered.

Bredull, Karen. "Mixed Marriage Between Congregational Partners." Reformed World 40 (1988). Comments on two congregations, one Roman Catholic and the other Reformed, in Switzerland that formed the Ecumenical Church of St. John. Understands ecumenism as a matter of mutual understanding of different confessions and a call to common witness in today's world.

Bumpass, Larry L., Teresa Castro Martin, and James A. Sweet Background and Early Marital Factors in Marital Disruption (NSFH Working Paper No. 14). Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin: Madison, WI, 1989. Analyzes marital disruption and parental background, spouses' characteristics at first marriage, differences in couple characteristics, and the joint activity status of both spouses. Finds that intermarriages between Catholics and non-Catholics have much higher disruption rates than religiously homogamous marriages, and that there is no difference in marital stability between couples in which both partners are Catholics and those in which both are Protestants.

Bumpass, Larry L. and James A. Sweet. "Differentials in Marital Instability: 1970." American Sociological Review 37 (1972) 754-66. A foundational study that examines several differentials in marital instability. Supports the positive role of homogamy, particularly religious homogamy, in marital stability. Suggests that the effects of religious differences on marital instability may derive from differing theological and subcultural views on marital breakdown and the strength of family ties. Considers the probability that satisfactory adjustment is lower among couples with dissimilar backgrounds. Finds higher marital instability among couples divergent in age or religion.

Burchinal, Lee B. and Loren E. Chancellor. "Survival Rates Among Religiously Homogamous and Interreligious Marriage." Social Forces 41 (1963) 353-62. An early study which finds greater marital survival rates for homogamous Catholic marriages and homogamous Protestant marriages. States that marital survival rates of homogamous Catholic marriages exceed those of homogamous Protestant marriages. Reports only small and insignificant differences in the survival rates between the marriages of Catholic wives and non-Catholic husbands and marriages of non-Catholic wives and Catholic husbands. Concludes that marital survival rates are not substantially different between denominationally homogamous Protestant marriages and marriages between Protestants with different denominational affiliations.

Butler, Sara. "Interchurch Marriage: Problems and Prospects." Chicago Studies 19 (1980) 209-22. Defines interchurch marriage as one "between two baptized Christians who are and who intend to remain practicing members of different churches". Reviews Roman Catholic developments since Vatican II, and attends to the ecclesiological and pastoral implications of interchurch marriage. Discusses objections to canonical form and the obligation, which seems to be destructive of the mutuality of marriage, placed on the Roman Catholic partner. Suggests that interchurch marriage involves three communities, the two churches and the interchurch couple, and that the interchurch family might be a sacrament of reunion. Notes the Protestant history of mutual respect founded in the ecclesiology of denominationalism and the absence of such a theory in Roman Catholicism. States that the source of ecclesiological difficulties is the existence of separated Christian churches; it is not the fault of the couple that their marriage spans two ecclesial communities. Calls for full and joint pastoral care of interchurch marriages.

Callahan, Sidney. "A Psychological Perspective." Journal of Ecumenical Studies 22 (1985) 103-07. A response to several religious traditions' understanding of marriage. Suggests that future reflection upon marriage will revolve around gender and sexuality questions, and that the influences of culture and the social system should always be taken into account. See related articles by Bernard, Carmody, Chittick, Constantelos, and Yates.

Carmody, Denise Lardner. "Marriage in Roman Catholicism." Journal of Ecumenical Studies 22 (1985) 28-40. A response to several religious traditions' understanding of marriage. Outlines a traditional and a contemporary Roman Catholic view of marriage. Notes that since various Christian churches are in closer contact, interchurch marriages now occur with less trauma. See related articles by Bernard, Callahan, Chittick, Constantelos, and Yates.

Center for Marriage and Family. Marriage Preparation in the Catholic Church- Getting It Right. Creighton University, 1995. Report of a study on the value of marriage preparation in the Catholic Church for couples married one through eight years. Finds that levels of involvement are significantly lower for inter-church couples than for samechurch couples, that men in inter-church couples have the lowest involvement of all, and that women in inter-church couples show the greatest drop in involvement in the years following the marriage. Concludes that inter-church couples come to marriage preparation expecting less value from the experience, that their evaluation of the experience is higher than their expectations, and that inter-church couples are most at risk for drift from church belonging and practice.

Chi, S. Kenneth and Sharon K. Houseknecht. "Protestant Fundamentalism and Marital Success: A Comparative Approach." Sociology and Social Research,69 (1985) 351-74. Finds that fundamentalist Protestants have a higher marital dissolution rate than nonfundamentalist Protestants and Catholics. Notes that fundamentalists have less tolerant and more authoritarian attitudes with regard to the family, more traditional sex role attitudes, and emphasize marital fidelity more strongly than do other religious groups. Finds that males and females married to spouses of the same religious affiliation are more likely to be satisfied with their marriages than are those with spouses of a different religious affiliation, and that spousal religious incongruency, not congruency, has the strongest impact on marital satisfaction. Concludes that conformists, adults whose current religious preference is the same as their childhood religious preference, have a lower marital dissolution rate than converts among fundamentalists, non-fundamentalist Protestants, and Catholics.

Chittick, Thomas B. "Pastoral Response." Journal of Ecumenical Studies 22 (1985) 108-11. Responds to several religious traditions' understanding of marriage. Criticizes sexist attitudes and the tendency to speak about marriage in ontological categories. Suggests that all religious traditions direct their attention to the existential, realistic, and pastoral dimensions of marriage. See related articles by Bernard, Callahan, Carmody, Constantelos, and Yates.

Christiansen, Harold T. and Kenneth E. Barber. "Interfaith Versus Intrafaith Marriage in Indiana". Journal of Marriage and the Family 29 (1967) 461-69. A foundational study on interfaith marriage in which approximately one-ninth of all marriages are interfaith, that is, cross major faith lines. Finds that interfaith marriage, compared to intrafaith marriage, tends more to be by civil ceremony and is likely to involve individuals who are members of religious minority groups, have been previously married, are older, are in high-status occupations, reside in urban areas, and become pregnant before marriage. Shows that interfaith marriages have a slightly higher divorce percentage, but notes that the difference between interfaith and intrafaith divorce rates is very small.

Cleek, Margaret Guminski and T. Allan Pearson. "Perceived Causes of Divorce: An Analysis of Interrelationships." Journal of Marriage and the Family 47 (1985) 179-83. Investigates perceived causes of divorce. Finds that males and females rarely mention religious differences as a cause of divorce.

Constantelos, Demetrios J. "Marriage in the Greek Orthodox Church." Journal of Ecumenical Studies 22 (1985) 21-27. A response to several religious tradition's understanding of marriage. Presents a Greek Orthodox view of marriage. States that marriages between Orthodox and non-Orthodox Christians are permitted but that certain conditions must be observed, that marriages between Orthodox and non-Christians are not permitted, and that an Orthodox Christian who enters an interreligious marriage with an atheist or a non-Christian commits self-excommunication. See related articles by Bernard, Callahan, Carmody, Chittick, and Yates.

Devine, Patrick. "Eucharistic Hospitality and Interchurch Families". Journal of Ecumenical studies 16 (1980) 133-45. Discusses various approaches to, interpretations of, and reasons for eucharistic hospitality for interchurch families.

Dora, Peter P. "Mutual Care and Commitment: A Ministry to Ecumenical Families". Journal of Ecumenical Studies 16 (1979) 629-42. Provides pastoral direction to interchurch families, marriages in which both partners remain loyal to and profess faith within their respective Christian communions. Promotes an atmosphere in which love-making and home-making, pardon and peace can be experienced.

Doyle, Thomas P. "The Roman Catholic Church and Mixed Marriages". Ecumenical Trends 14 (1985) 81-84. Sketches past and present Roman Catholic attitudes, norms (church law), and liturgical practices concerning mixed marriages.

Duncan, Lucinda S. "Mixing Oil and Water Religiously: Counseling Interfaith Families." Religion and the Family: When God Helps. Ed. Laurel Arthur Burton. New York: Haworth, 1992. 103-37. Presents an approach to counseling interfaith couples, marrieds who represent two different systems of meaning or faith structures. Describes three basic coordinates, power, affect, and meaning, and demonstrates how one of these coordinates is primary for any particular religion. Suggests that counselors teach couples to understand these coordinates and how they are related to interfaith dialogue. Describes family systems theory, which envisions family as a relationship continuing over several generations, and discusses its usefulness in dealing with interfaith couples. Concludes by mentioning specific dynamics involved in interfaith consultations.

Ecumenism 21.82 (1986). Entire issue addresses inter-church marriages. Individual articles are classified under three sections: "Preparation of Inter-church Marriages", "Celebration of Inter-church Marriages", and "Pastoral Care of Inter-church Families".

Finch, Melanie and Ruth Reardon, eds. Sharing Communion. London: Collins, 1983. The result of a questionnaire on eucharistic sharing circulated through the Association of Interchurch Families. Describes the experiences and expresses the needs and aspirations of interchurch families. Includes a an annotated documentary section that applies specifically to eucharistic sharing.

Glenn, Norval D. "Interreligious Marriage in the United States: Patterns and Recent Trends." Journal of Marriage and the Family 44 (1982) 555-66. Finds that the norms of religious endogamy have not been as strong or effective as they once were. Concludes that the high degree of religious endogamy in the 1970's was achieved because persons changed their religious preference to agree with that of their spouse after marriage or in anticipation of marriage. Suggests that despite the ideal that the religious preferences of husband and wife agree, there appear to be few barriers to marriages between persons of different religious backgrounds. States that the fact that many persons are willing to marry a person of a different religion and to change their own religion to that of the spouse indicates that marriage in the United States has become largely a secular institution, and that religious institutions exert only weak influences on marital choice. Suggests that as interreligious marriages become more frequent and socially accepted, any negative effects they have on marital quality are likely to diminish.

- "A Note on Estimating the Strength of Influences for Religious Endogamy." Journal of Marriage and the Family 46 (1984) 725-27. Provides an adjustment to the findings of the author's 1982 article, which states that influences for religious endogamy have been substantially stronger for Catholics than for Protestants. Reanalysis concludes that influences for endogamy are virtually equal for Catholics and Protestants.

Glenn, Norval D. and Michael Supanic. "The Social and Demographic Correlates of Divorce and Separation in the United States: An Update and Reconsideration." Journal of Marriage and the Family 46 (1984) 563-75. Finds that the strongest correlates of marital dissolution in the United States are race, age at first marriage, and frequency of attendance of religious services. Concludes that marital dissolution is moderately higher for Protestants than for Catholics, and is lower for Jews than for Catholics. Finds the highest marital dissolution rates among those with no religion, which suggests that religiosity is an important deterrent to divorce and separation. Notes that the most conservative denominations have relatively high dissolution rates in spite of their strong disapproval of divorce; and that, regionally, divorce rates generally increase from east to west and, to a lesser extent, from north to south.

Greeley, Andrew M. "Religious Intermarriage in a Denominational Society". American Journal of Sociology 75 (1970) 948-52. States that the United States is a society in which membership in religious denominations plays a considerable role in determining patterns of interaction which establish societal structures. Shows that Jews are the least likely to marry members of other faiths, Catholics most likely, and Protestants somewhere in between; approximately four-fifths of the members of each Protestant denomination studied are married to people whose religious affiliation is the same as their own. Finds that the ratio of mixed marriages varies little across denominational lines; that when Catholics marry into other denominations, the non-Catholic is likely to convert; that Protestants may marry across denominational lines, but then denominational change occurs in order to maintain religious homogeneity in the family environment. Concludes that denominational homogeneity in marriage exists for at least three-quarters of the major religious denominations.

Crisis in the Church- A Study of Religion in Ameri . Chicago: Thomas More, 1979. Investigates five kinds of religious dissidence: alienation, unchurchedness, dissatisfaction, disidentification, and communalism. Discusses religious intermarriage within the context of religious disidentification (117-5 1). States that religiousness of spouse is the single most important predictor of one's religious behavior among contemporary Catholics. Describes the religious interm arriage or "musical chairs" model of disidentification as the rearrangement of religious affiliations to minimize strain and conflict which might exist because of different religious loyalties. States that religious conviction, faith, unbelief, devotion, and loyalty are less important than minimizing family conflict, and that conversion will usually be in the direction of the more devout of the two marriage partners. Claims that the most plausible explanation for religious disidentification is religious exogamy, but that it is difficult to know whether disidentification came before or after marriage. States that the game of religious musical chairs reduces exogamy rates by one-third for Protestants and almost one-half for Catholics; that two-fifths of those who were Catholic at age 16 married people who were not Catholic, but that only one-quarter of those who are presently Catholic are married to people who are not Catholic; that disidentification is five times as high in exogamous marriages as it is in endogamous marriages; and that exogamy accounts for 50% of Catholic disidentification and 34% of Protestant disidentification.

-"Ethnic Variations in Religious Commitment." The Religious Dimensions New Directions in Quantitative Research. Ed. Robert Wuthnow. New York: Academic Press, 1979. 113-34. Discusses religiously mixed marriages within a discussion of the role of ethnicity in influencing religious commitment. Reports that Catholics are more likely to enter religiously mixed marriages than Protestants and Jews, and that there are few differences in the mixed marriage rates within the denominational divisions.

Religious Change in America. . Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1989. Finds that the number of people living in religiously mixed marriages did not change from 1972 to 1985: approximately one-tenth for Protestants and one-fifth for Catholics. Mentions the study of religious assortative marriages by Robert Alan Johnson which finds that even though higher social and economic status has increased the likelihood of exogamy for Catholics in the last fifty years, the actual rates have not changed.

Heaton, Tim B. "Religious Homogamy and Marital Satisfaction Reconsidered." Journal of Marriage and the Family 46 (1984) 729-33. Finds a positive association between religious homogamy and marital satisfaction. Concludes that the presence of children and conflict over appropriate religious values for children does not account for lower satisfaction in heterogarnous marriages. Frequency of attendance at religious services is found to be a greater factor in marital satisfaction than religious homogamy.

Heaton, Tim B., Stan L. Albrecht and Thomas K Martin. "The Timing of Divorce". Journal of Marriage and the Family 47 (1985) 631-39). Studies the timing of divorce with respect to marital duration and independent variables. Proposes two competing models: the adjustment model of marriage, which posits a decline in the effects of covariates as marital duration increases, and the perpetual problem model, which posits that covariates will continue to influence the likelihood of divorce throughout the duration of the marriage. Finds that the effects of wife's age at marriage, husband's age relative to the wife's age, wife's religion, and religious homogamy do not appear to diminish over marital duration. Concludes that the perpetual problem model better describes the relationship between these variables and the timing of divorce.

Heaton, Tim B. and Kristen L. Goodman. "Religion and Family Formation." Review of Religious Research 26 (1985) 343-59. Finds that the divorce rate in the United States does not appear to be endemic to any particular religion, and that those with no religious preference have the highest divorce rate. Concludes that a majority of those who divorce eventually remarry, and that within each religious group, divorce is much lower among frequent attenders than among infrequent attenders. States that those reporting no religion are less likely to marry or remarry, and are more likely to divorce.

Heaton, Tim B. and Edith L. Pratt. "The Effects of Religious Homogamy on Marital Satisfaction and Stability." Journal of Family Issues 11 (1990) 191-207. Finds that couples of the same denominational affiliation are more likely to have a happy, stable marriage than those whose religions are different. States that those who attend church at similar rates have higher marital satisfaction and stability. Concludes that even though women tend to be more religious than men, (i.e., attend church more frequently and have more traditional beliefs about the Bible), men's religiosity is more consequential to the satisfaction and stability of marriage.

Hendricks, William. Exit Interviews. Chicago: Moody, 1993. A pastoral, non-scientific, nonacademic study based on personal interviews that addresses Christian churches' declining membership, declining contributions, and declining influence. Final chapters briefly discuss the return of Baby Boomers to religion and the rise of "megachurches." Suggests that what distinguishes today's megachurches is not size but strategy; they operate with a marketing mentality that appeals to the needs, interests, and tastes of Baby Boomers. Notes a distinction between religious involvement and spirituality in contemporary society, suggests that there is no one reason why people leave church today, and detects a general need for community, belonging, and commitment. Does not mention interchurch marriage, but provides an interpretation of the religious landscape in which interchurch marriages exist.

Heron, Alasdair. Two Churches, One Love. Dublin: APCK, 1977. Lists and describes the problems of interchurch marriage: it seems to pose a threat to the church whose member is marrying a member of another church; it sets the marriage on a divided religious foundation; it raises the possibility that one or the other partner might abandon or change church allegiance; and it raises the question whether the children can have a stable religious background. Discusses each problem as a challenge and points out three ways in which couples can face the challenge of different church backgrounds: they can cut both churches out of their marriage; they can count one of them out; or they can decide to work with both.

Ho, Man Keung. Building a Successful Intermarriage between Religions, Social Classes, Ethnic Groups, or Races. St. Meinrad, IN: Abbey Press, 1984. Looks at marriage between individuals of different religious, ethnic, racial, or social backgrounds from a sociological and a psychological perspective. Identifies potential problem areas and offers guidelines for couple communication, child rearing, and extended family relationship. Calls for marriage preparation that enables the couple to assess all the factors contributing to a successful marriage. Suggests that preoccupation with religious differences reflects a lack of knowledge on the part of the clergy and a lack of genuine interest in the individuals contemplating the marriage.

Hoge, Dean R. Converts Dropouts Returnees- A Study of Religious Change Among Catholics. Washington, D.C.: United States Catholic Conference, 1981. Chapter four (72-80) is devoted to interfaith marriage in America. Describes intermarriage between Catholics and Protestants as the greatest source of new Catholic converts and the greatest source of disidentification from Catholicism. Summarizes available research: strong predictors of intermarriages are the number of eligible Catholic marriage partners in a given geographical area and whether ethnic or social class barriers exist; factors that produce higher rates of intermarriage are the absence of ethnic and socioeconomic barriers, upward social mobility, college attendance, aid a weakening of the influence of churches; people who intermarry may be from homes that are not religiously devout, may feel dissatisfied with family relationships, may be children of mixed marriages, or may be entering a second marriage; younger and older than the average age at marriage is associated with a higher rate of intermarriage; higher rates of intermarriage are found in ecumenically minded denominations; approximately 50% of interfaith marriages remain mixed; relative devoutness of the two spouses is crucial in determining which spouse converts; nearly all conversions occur at the time of marriage or before the first child is born; religious involvement of intermarried couples is substantially lower than for other couples; and interfaith marriages generally have lower marital satisfaction and lower survival rates than single-faith marriages.

Hoge, Dean R. and Kathleen M. Ferry. Empirical Research on Interfaith Marriage in A Washington, DC: United States Catholic Conference, 1981. Summarizes available research; presents the same information provided in chapter four of Hoge's Converts Dropouts Returnees.

Hoge, Dean, Benton Johnson, and Donald A. Luidens. Vanishing Boundaires: The Religion of Mainline Protestant Baby Boomers. Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox, 1994. Provides an in-depth survey of the religious world of the Baby Boomers. Does not discuss interchurch marriage, but presents an interpretation of the overall socio-religious setting in which interchurch marriages currently exist. Explores the reasons for the decline and marginalization of mainline Protestantism in general and Presbyterianism in particular. Concludes that Baby Boomers have a market view of churches, and that this requires a market approach to ministering to them. Finds that the commodities wanted by Baby Boomers are religious education for children, personal support and reassurance, social contacts and a sense of security, inspiration and spiritual guidance. Concludes that this population group turns to churches when facing questions of meaning, that churches are the primary source of the meaning commodity, and that conversion is strongly associated with marrying a person of a different religion.

Hornsby-Smith, Michael P., Kathryn A. Turcan, and Lynda T. Rajan. "Patterns of Religious Commitment: Intermarriage and Marital Breakdown Among English Catholics." Archives de Sciences Sociales des Religions 32 (1987) 173-55. Provides analyses of English Catholics' patterns of religious endogamy and exogamy and the timing of any cessation of religious practice, subsequent marital breakdown, and current religious commitment. Analyses are based upon four marriage types: Catholics validly married to another Catholic, Catholics validly married to non-Catholics, Catholics invalidly married to another Catholic, and Catholics invalidly married to a non-Catholic. Suggests that lapsation from religious practices is associated with patterns established before marriage. Demonstrates a relationship between the erosion of the "fortress model of the Church" and the stress on marital endogamy. Relates the considerable degree of heterodoxy in terms of religious practice to a significant increase in the number of mixed and invalid marriages and to the increase in rates of marital breakdown.

Hurley, Michael, ed. Beyond Tolerance: The Challenge of Mixed Marriage. London: Geoffrey Chapman, 1975. Collection of papers presented at the International Consultation on Mixed Marriage held by the Irish School of Ecumenics. Considers the exogamous character of marriage and its role in bridging divisions in society. Suggests that orthodoxy must be preceded by orthopraxy, and attempts to bring to the discussion an emphasis on the experience of Christians who are involved in a mixed marriage.

Johnson, Robert Alan. Religious Assortative Marriage in the United States. New York: Academic Press, 1980. Defines assortative marriage as "the pattern of association between spouses' attributes that arise in the marriage market." Formulates and applies to American religious data macro-sociological models of assortative marriage in pluralistic populations. Postulates that the factors determining assortative marriage are population structure, social divisions, and norms of endogamy.

Kilcourse, George. "Ecumenical Married Couples." Ecumenical Trends 14 (1985) 86-88. Suggests that ecumenical married couples personify a new phase of the ecumenical movement, and asks whether churches' ministers have failed to serve the uniqueness of these couples. Points to two European centers responding to the needs and gifts of ecumenical couples (the Association of Interchurch Families in Sussex, England and the Centre St. Irenee in Lyons, France). Raises the question of "double belonging", membership in two churches. Concludes that the problem lies not within ecumenical marriages but within churches that refuse to "mainstream" ecumenical couples into the life of each denomination.

-Ecumenical Marriage. National Association of Diocesan Ecumenical Officers, 1987. An orientation booklet geared for engaged couples, families, pastoral ministers, and religious educators. Chapters address marriage preparation, the married couple, and children..

-"Ecumenical Marriages: Two Models for Church Unity." Mid-Stream 26 (1987) 189214. Provides a brief history of the development and actions of the British Association of Interchurch Families and of the French Centre St. Irenee's, both of which promote church unity in terms of ecumenical marriage. Discusses joint baptism and eucharistic hospitality.

-"U.S. Interchurch Families: Ecumenism with a Human Face." One in Christ 24 (1988) 234-5 1. A paper presented to the Fifth International Conference of the Association of Interchurch Families, 1988. Notes the steady increase in the frequency and acceptance of interchurch marriages in the United States. States that U.S. ecumenism, due to the phenomenon of pluralism, is innately multilateral. Suggests that the dilemma of interchurch couples and families is the product of "pastoral malpractice". Calls for a communion model of church and suggests that such an approach is especially important for interchurch couples. States that the problem is not ecumenical marriage but the scandal of the Church's divisions.

-The Spirituality of Interchurch Families." One in Christ 26 (1990) 200-14. Discusses the spirituality of interchurch families by appealing to the koinonia model of church and unity.

-Double Belongings Interchurch Families and Christian Unity. New York: Paulist, 1992. Addresses the growing ecumenical reality and complexity of interchurch marriage. Discusses issues that such couples confront, such as the hurdles of marriage preparation, dispensations, the promises regarding children and the wedding liturgy. Respects each spouse's desire to maintain identity within their particular religious tradition. Suggests that the religious education of children is especially important; children can be provided unique ecumenical experiences that can be part of the couple's and the entire family's ongoing faith development. Provides suggestions in dealing with the matter of sacraments.

-"Unimagined Gifts: Interchurch Families." Ecumenism 109 (1993) 5-8. Suggests that interchurch spouses and children offer gifts in helping churches to appreciate Spiritcreated diversity. Understands the church as a communion of all the baptized.

Kosmin, Barry A. and Seymour P. Lachman. One Nation Under God- Religion in Contemporary American Society. New York: Harmony, 1993. Notes the recent (1970s and 1980s) rise of interfaith households and interdenominational marriages. States that the most common reason for religious change, switching, is marriage with someone of a different religious background, and that most changes to achieve religious consensus in the home occur at the time of marriage, at the birth of the first child, or when children reach school age. Suggests that the push toward religious homogeneity is rooted in the American belief that religious differences between husband and wife are not good either for the marriage or for the children of the marriage, and that the social norm of endogamy continues to influence the majority. Reports that the loss of traditional religious boundaries is caused by factors such as secularization, individualism, diminishing influence of parents on children, and suburbanization. Finds that the winners in the switching process in recent years have been small Protestant denominations and that the biggest loser has been the Catholic church. Suggests that the social boundaries between religious groups will continue to decline, and that social norms against interfaith marriage will continue to wane.

Kunz, Philip R. and Stan L. Albrecht. "Religion, Marital Happiness, and Divorce." International Journal of Sociology and the Family 7 (1977) 227-32. Studies the impact of religious behavior on marital stability. Finds that the religiously active have more stable marriages: 1 % of those who report regular or frequent church attendance indicate their current marital status as divorced; 83 percent of the regular attenders report they are in their first marriage. Indicates a higher frequency of disagreement over marital roles among those who attend church less regularly or not at all.

Landis, Judson T. "Marriages of Mixed and Non-mixed Religious Faith." American Sociological Review 14 (1949) 401-07. A foundational article; the forerunner of subsequent studies that examine interchurch marriages. Finds that marriages between Catholics and Protestants entail more hazards than do those between members of one faith.

Larson, Lyle, and Brenda Munro. "Religious Intermarriage in Canada, 1974-1982." International Journal of Sociology of the Family 15 (1985) 31-49. Finds that religious intermarriage significantly increased among Jews and Catholics; intramarriage increased among the more conservative Protestant denominations while intermarriage increased among the larger more liberal Protestant groups; religious outmarriage most often involves the choice of a spouse from one of the three largest denominations-the Anglican church, the Roman Catholic church, or the United church. Concludes that while religious intermarriage continues to increase, there is marked variation within Protestantism. States that intermarriage is becoming nearly as common as intramarriage, and that it appears to be more a function of structural availability than of religious faith.

-"Religious Intermarriage in Canada in the 1980's." Journal of Comparative Family Studies 21 (1990) 239-50. Finds support for both the secularization and propinquity hypotheses in explaining increasing religious exogamy. States that groups exhibiting a high level of endogamous marriage are Jews, non-Christians, Mennonites and Pentecostals; low levels of endogamous marriage are found among Greek Orthodox, Anglican, Ukrainian Catholic, Lutheran and Presbyterian groups; Roman Catholics and a number of Protestant groups fall into a middle range of endogamous marriage; the highest proportion of those who enter exogamous marriages tend to marry into the largest religious groups-Anglicans and Roman Catholics; when exogamy occurs, the group of second choice is typically Roman Catholic regardless of one's religious background.

Lawler, Michael G. Ecumenical Marriage & Remarriage: Gifts and Challenges to the Churches. Mystic, CT: Twenty-Third, 1990. Examines the understanding of marriage as covenant, expressed primarily by Protestant traditions, and marriage as sacrament, expressed through the Catholic tradition. Outlines New Testament teachings on divorce and remarriage, clarifies the positions of various churches on this subject, and examines different pastoral approaches to dealing with ecumenical marriage and remarriage.

-Hope and Help for Interchurch Couples." Liguorian (June 1997) 1997. Discusses interchurch marriage. States that the common Christian baptism of each partner in such a marriage provides the sound Christian basis for a married life together. Explains that baptism is no longer looked upon as a matter in which one is baptized exclusively into any of the various Christian churches, rather one is baptized into the one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church established by Jesus Christ. Maintains that the union achieved in baptism is further solidified in the sacrament of marriage, raises the question of shared Communion, and implies that the circumstances and conditions of marriage may be interpreted as exceptions that allow shared Communion. Points to the serious problem of ignorance on the part of couples and pastors of other churches' beliefs and teachings. Calls for marriage preparation programs that make diverse Christian faith and practice an ongoing part of marriage, and states that the faith of both parents is an especially critical factor in the religious education of children in an interchurch marriage. Suggests that parents and families of the interchurch couple frequently need to have explained to them the change in attitudes among Christian churches. Concludes that interchurch couples who give their marriage time mark out the path to unity, the fulfillment of Jesus' prayer for humankind.

Lawless, Richard M. "When Love Unites the Church" St. Meinrad, IN: Abbey Press, 1982. Calls on families, clergy, and local church members to move from seeing interfaith marriages as problems to welcoming the opportunities they present for demonstrating Christian unity. Addresses handing on the faith to children, intercommunion, rulekeeping and rule-breaking, and the unique religious tensions that come with the various states of married life.

Lawson, William B. "The Anglican Church and Mixed Marriages." Ecumenical Trends 14 (1985) 85-88. Suggests that the institutional church, which can become a source of contention within an ecumenical marriage, should be committed to sensitive and creative pastoral care for such couples. Points out that the Anglican church, unlike the Roman Catholic church, has no specific canons or official directives about mixed marriages, and suggests that Anglicanism may be more permissive and pastorally oriented than the Roman Catholic tradition.

Lehrer, Evelyn L. "The Role of the Husb ' ands Religious Affiliation in the Economic and Demographic Behavior of Families". Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 35 (1996) 145-55. Studies the role that the husband's religion plays in the economic and demographic behavior of families. Demonstrates the importance of using information on the husband's religious affiliation in analysis of gender role attitudes, patterns of female participation in the labor market, and fertility decisions. Notes significant differences between homogarnous Catholic and Protestant unions, and that calculations based on the wife's religion alone do not provide an accurate measure of such differences.

Lehrer, Evelyn L. and Carmel U. Chiswick. "Religion as a Determinant of Marital Stability". Demography 30 (1993) 385-404. Finds that stability is remarkably similar among various types of homogarnous unions, and that interfaith unions have higher rates of dissolution than intrafaith unions. Notes that the destabilizing effect of out-marriage varies inversely with similarity in beliefs and practices and with the mutual tolerance embodied in some religious doctrines. Suggests that religious compatibility between spouses at the time of marriage has a major influence on marital stability, rivaling in magnitude that of age at marriage and dominating any adverse effects of differences in religious background. Concludes that couples who have achieved homogamy through conversion are at least as stable as those involving two members who had the same religion before marriage, and that religious compatibility between spouses at the time of marriage and thereafter dominates any adverse effects of differences in religious background.

Lincoln, Laura. "Living an Ecumenical Mixed Marriage." Ecumenism 78 (1985) 7-10. Comments on ways to deactivate tensions involved in an ecumenical marriage. Mentions religious education (one's own and one's spouses religion), the richness of diversity, praying together, sharing worship experiences, religious upbringing of children. Calls for cooperation of the churches and honest and caring communication.

Lull, Timothy F. "Ecumenical Marriages: Pastoral Problem or Opportunity?". Journal of Ecumenical Studies 16 (1979) 643-50. Takes a positive approach to ecumenical marriage and suggests that such marriages have a positive role to play in healing the division of the churches. States that ecumenical marriages are witnesses to the world of their commitment to work at being married and a foretaste of that unity which all Christians seek.

Mailer, Allen S. "Reducing the Risks of Divorce: A Responsibility of Religious Educators." Religious Fducation 87 (1992) 471-78. States that there is a positive relationship between religiosity and marital satisfaction, and that non-religious couples are twice as likely to be dissatisfied in their marriage and to get a divorce than religious couples. Claims that mixed religious marriages are more prone to marital dissatisfaction and divorce. Suggests that religious educators need to stress the advantages of marrying someone with similar religious beliefs and the disadvantages of marrying someone with different religious beliefs.

Maneker, Jerry S. and Robert P. Rankin. "Religious Affiliation and Marital Duration Among Those Who File for Divorce in California, 1966-7 1. " Joumal of Divorce and Remarriage 15 (1991) 205-217. Supports the hypothesis that religious affiliation is related to marital duration. Finds that the percentage of individuals whose marriages lasted five years or more before separation was higher for Jews, and slightly higher for Conservative Protestants, than for Liberal Protestants, Roman Catholics, and those reporting no religious affiliation.

McCutcheon, Allan L. "Denominations and Religious Intermarriage: Trends Among White Americans in the Twentieth Century." Review of Religious Research 29 (1988) 213-27. Examines religious intermarriage for conservative Christians, Methodists, Lutherans, Presbyterians-Episcopalians, Catholics, and Jews, and finds increasing rates of intermarriage for all groups except conservative Christians.

Michael, Robert. "Determinants of Divorce". Sociological Economics. Ed. Louis DevyGarboua. London: SAGE Publications, 1979. 223-54. Seeks to identify the determinants of divorce. Finds that spouses of the same religion are considerably more maritally stable than couples who have intermarried. Suggests that this effect is the same across religions during the first few years of marriage. Also finds that religious activity effects marriage stability: families who attend church at least once a week have a 4% lower probability of divorce. Suggests that Catholic women may be maritally less happy because Catholicism discourages divorce, which causes them to remain married at higher levels of dissatisfaction than non-Catholics.

Ortega, Suzanne T., Hugh P. Whitt, and J. Allen William, Jr. "Religious Homogamy and Marital Happiness." Journal of Family Issues 9 (1988) 224-39. Argues against using the familiar trichotomy of Protestants, Catholics, and Jews when studying inter- and intrafaith marriages and marital success, claiming that it risks obscuring relevant differences both within and between the three religious traditions. Finds the overall difference in marital happiness between homogamous and heterogamous marriages to be statistically insignificant. Suggests that religious bodies may have become more like one another; there is considerable social, cultural, and demographic convergence between Protestants and Catholics.

Petersen, Larry R. "Interfaith Marriage and Religious Commitment among Catholics." Journal of Marriage and the Family 48 (1986) 725-35. Finds no significant difference between the general religiosity of the offspring of heterogamous marriages and the general religiosity of the offspring of homogamous marriages. Concludes that Catholic offspring of interfaith marriages are as strongly committed to Catholicism as are those whose parents are both Catholics. Finds that Catholics in homogamous marriages score higher on mass attendance and reception of communion than Catholics in heterogamous marriages. Seriously doubts the common assertion that interfaith marriages have a secularizing effect on family members, and maintains that, at least among Catholics, interfaith marriages have relatively inconsequential effects on most aspects of religious commitment.

Pivonka, Leonard D. "Ecumenical or Mixed Marriages in the New Code of Canon Law." The Jurist 43 (1983) 102-24. Discusses recent developments and current Roman Catholic canon law concerning ecumenical marriage. Concludes that the current norms on mixed marriage are sensitive to the good faith and conscience of the non-Catholic party. States that couples in ecumenical marriages should regard their personal efforts at understanding and patience as symbolic of and a participation in the broader efforts toward unity among the separated churches.

Schiappa, Barbara D. Mixing- Catholic-Protestant Marriages in the 1980's. Ramsey, NJ: Paulist, 1982. A guidebook for Catholic-Protestant couples. Profiles a twenty-year and a five-year marriage. Addresses dealing with parents, raising children, and birth control. Concludes by offering a pattern for success which stresses communication, shared worship, and prayer.

Schmidt, Wayne E. "The Lutheran Wedding Service." Concordia Journal (1980) 54-70. Reviews the wedding service of the Lutheran Church Missouri Synod and its theology of marriage. Includes extensive discussion of its perception of the Roman Catholic theology of marriage and its interpretation of conflict between the Lutheran and Roman Catholic understandings of marriage. Projects a highly critical view of Roman Catholic theology. Strongly discourages Lutheran clergy from participating in any inter-faith marriages: sinful unionism compromises the divine imperative to contend for the truth.

Shehan, Constance L., E. Wilbur Bock, and Gary R. Lee. "Religious Heterogamy, Religiosity, and Marital Happiness: The Case of Catholics." Journal of Marriage and the Famil 52 (1990) 73-79. Assesses the relationship between religious heterogamy and the marital happiness of Catholics. Finds that heterogamy does not appear to adversely affect marital happiness for Catholics, but that religiosity, only among homogamous Catholics, does have a positive effect on marital happiness. Suggests that heterogamous couples may compensate for lower levels of religiosity by engaging in other couple-centered activities that are equally effective in promoting marital solidarity.

Sunderland, Edwin. "The Pastoral Care of Ecumenical Marriages-the Episcopal Perspective". Journal of Ecumenical Studi 16 (1979) 619-28. Suggests that the pastoral care appropriate to a mixed marriage depends upon two factors: the religious commitment of the couple and the religious commitment of each partner. Discusses baptism, religious education of the children, and the theology of marriage. Calls for canonical changes, and suggests that promises on the part of both parties should be required: children will be baptized in either church and exposed to the teaching of both churches. Also suggests that the requirement of canonical form should be dropped, that the marriage of persons whose only connection with a church has been baptism in infancy should not be regarded as a sacramental marriage, and that a baptized non-Roman Catholic spouse should have the right to receive communion at a nuptial mass.

Sweet, James A. and Larry L. Bumpass. Religious Differentials in Marriage Behavior and Attitudes (NSFH Working Paper No. 15). Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin: Madison, WI, 1990. Provides a detailed comparison of marriage and divorce attitudes and behavior among religious denominations.

Thompson, Don. "Interchurch Marriages: Support and Catechesis." One In Christ 26 (1990) 215-25. Elaborates upon the Anglican Church's Pastoral Guidelines for Interchurch Marriages. Speaks about interchurch marriage within the context of an ecclesiology of koinonia and from an eschatological perspective. Makes recommendations for church support of couples who propose an interchurch marriage as well as follow-up support.

Yates, Wilson. "The Protestant View of Marriage." Journal of Ecumenical Studies 22 (1985) 41-54. A response to several religious traditions' understanding of marriage. Presents a mainline Protestant convenantal image of marriage, and suggests that much of this image is also found in Roman Catholic and Orthodox understandings of marriage. Suggests that a certain but slow convergence in the understandings of marriage that respects genuine differences is unfolding. See related articles by Bernard, Callahan, Carmody, Chittick, and Constantelos.